Not all bridges have the same security or threat model.

We, as a community, are incredibly excited about off-chain protocols as a way to scale the network. It allows the majority of transactions to be moved from the layer-1 blockchain to an off-chain system, bypassing all network fees and latency issues on the layer-1 blockchain.

What is a bridge?

In this article, I want to discuss something fundamental for all off-chain protocols. A basic component that is often overlooked, but crucial to assess for the safety of your funds:

A bridge is responsible for holding the assets on a layer-1 blockchain while the same assets are released on another (and external) service. …


Problems can be found within.

any.sender is a high-throughput transaction relayer that is accessible via an API. The user can provide a relay transaction to the any.sender API, our relayer packs it into an Ethereum transaction and then gradually bumps the network fee until it is mined.

A relay transaction is defined as a signed message from the user to authenticate with the any.sender service and to inform the service on how to craft the Ethereum Transaction. It includes target contract to execute (to), what data to supply when executing it (data), the quantity of gas to supply (gasLimit) and the network identifier (chainId):

relayTransaction…


Bitcoin fee market pie (picture is stolen from a coindesk article).

We have focused on building a non-custodial relayer, Infura Transaction Service (ITX), that takes a pre-signed message (e.g. meta-transaction), packs it into an Ethereum transaction and then gradually bumps the fee until it is mined in the blockchain.

Why do we care about relayers? We expect businesses to emerge that offer reliable transaction delivery as a service. Relayers help alleviate the fundamental problem of competing in the global block-space fee market and they specialise in picking relay strategies depending on the transaction’s priority. …


Hi all,

As you are aware, we have spent the past year building a non-custodial transaction relayer called any.sender. It is the first relayer to achieve zero gas overhead when relaying transactions while deploying a fee escalating algorithm that ensures our users can pay the best price at any time.

We have spent the summer working with various teams to incorporate any.sender into their service and one team in particular liked any.sender so much that they decided to acquire us!

I’d like to announce that we have been acquired by ConsenSys to join Infura, the leading API for accessing the…


Peak of the ICO boom in 2017 pales in comparison to the fees paid over the past few weeks.

any.sender is a non-custodial and high-throughput transaction relayer. Our goal is to optimistically pay the best network price while getting your transaction confirmed quickly, even during crazy and significant congested days like YAM Wednesday, so how did we do?

Users paid 4.8x fees on Ethereum compared to Bitcoin

The casino environment of degenerate and chad traders that fuelled the 2017 bull-market has returned. But this time, thanks to the rise of DeFi, it has bypassed the centralised exchange gatekeepers and a significant portion of the action is playing out directly on Ethereum.


Never deal with stuck transactions again. Try any.sender today.

tldr; any.sender is now the first third party relayer with a zero gas overhead and to help navigate the high-fee summer, we have reduced our own fee to 2% of the gas cost (gasUsed).

What is new?

It has been awhile since we posted an update about our progress with any.sender. We have been focused on delivering:

  • Zero gas overhead. We have just released direct transactions that send the relay transaction directly to the target contract. As such, we are the first publicly accessible relay API that incurs no gas overhead to use.
  • Status API. A new end-point that returns the list of…


The first skin-in-the-game transaction relay as a service API

tldr; We have released any.sender v0.2.1 (beta) on mainnet alongside a provably fair competition, CyberDice 2.0, to demonstrate how easy it is to use the any.sender API. Please visit https://www.anydot.dev/competition/ or join our Telegram Group to find more about how to submit a ticket to CyberDice 2.0 and be in the chance to win 3 ETH.

On Black Thursday, we witnessed two failures surrounding competitive transaction infrastructure that worked in favour and against MakerDAO.

Price feed. The first failure was the delay in submitting the price feed to the MakerDAO contract — this provided essential time for other participants to…


Dedicated 4-person team to building a self-custody & financially accountable future

tldr; We have re-branded PISA research to anydot — to emphasise that our on-chain accountable API for outsourcing transaction infrastructure works for any smart contract. Even more exciting, we have have swiftly shipped two testnet products, any.sender and the Eye of Satoshi .

anydot — transactions made simple

At Financial Cryptography 2019, co-founders Patrick McCorry, Sergi Delgado and Chris Buckland decided to kick-start PISA Research with a mission to build and protect an emerging self-custody financial system.

It took some time to wind down our research and teaching responsibilities as we left our jobs…


The Eye of Satoshi at the helm and ready to issue penalty transactions

tldr; Over the years we have supported the Lightning Network through several research initiatives, but now we are pushing forward its implementation with the release of our watchtower: The Eye of Satoshi. So check out the docs and try to it out!

The rise of another informal value transfer system?

Before we jump into our watchtower announcement, it is important to discuss our motivation for implementing a fundamental building block of the Lightning Network.

Most people like to think the Lightning Network represents the first attempt in human history to build a truly peer-to-peer settlement system. Which, by the way, is a very exciting proposition.


We are excited to release a non-custodial service for outsourcing transaction infrastructure — any.sender

tldr; Jump right in to our developer documentation and check out for yourself how easy it is to register and send up a relay transaction to the any.sender API with an on-chain enforced quality of service.

Telegram | Twitter | Docs | Website

What is transaction infrastructure?

When the number of transactions in the pending pool outstrips the capacity of new blocks, the network becomes congested. …

Patrick McCorry

In-house Professor @ Infura. Sometimes called stonecoldpat ☘️

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